|Regions with significant populations|
|Lun Bawang; dialects include Trusan, Lun Daye, Papadi, Lun Dayah, Adang, Tabun,Treng, Kolur, Padas, Trusan & Lepu Potong|
|Predominantly Christianity, minorities are Islamand animist|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Kelabit, Lengilu, Putoh, Sa’ban & Tring|
The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei (Temburong District), southwest of Sabah (Interior Division) and northern region of Sarawak (Limbang Division). In the Malaysian state of Sarawak, the Lun Bawang (through the term Murut) are officially recognized by the Constitution as native of Sarawak and are categorised under the Orang Ulu people; whilst in the neighbouring state of Sabah and Krayan highland in Kalimantan, they are more commonly known as Lundayeh orLun Daye. In Brunei, they are also identified by law as one of the 7 natives (indigenous people) of Brunei, through the term Murut. At a regional level, the Lun Bawang people identified themselves using various names, for example Lun Lod, Lun Baa’ and Lun Tana Luun.
The word Lun Bawang means people of the country, whilst Lun Dayeh means upriver people or people of the interior and Lun Lod means people living downriver or near the sea. Other names are derived from geographical reference to their rice cultivation, for example Lun Baa’ (swamps) who lives near swampy areas and grow wet rice, and Lun Tana’ Luun (on the land) who cultivates dry rice.
While insisting that they never called themselves Murut, the Lun Bawangs were formerly identified as Murut by the British colonists and by outsiders (other ethnic group). In Lun Bawang language, the word Murut either means ‘to massage’ or ‘to give dowry’, and these meanings have little or no relation at all to the identity of the people. The name Murut might have been derived from the word “Murud”, a mountain located near an old Lun Bawang settlement, hence might have just meant ‘mountain men’ or ‘hill people’ but was instead used by the colonist to identify this ethnic.
In addition to that, ethnologist found that the classification under the name Murut is confusing as the term is used differently in Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei, that is whilst in Brunei and Sarawak it is used to describe the Lun Bawang people, in Sabah it is used to identify an ethnic group that is linguistically and culturally different from the Lun Bawangs.
In the early 1970s, the use of the term Lun Bawang began to gain popularity amongst ethnologist and linguist, and it is now the most commonly used term to identify this ethnic group. In Sarawak, the decision to replace the term ‘Murut’ to ‘Lun Bawang’ to identify this ethnic group was made unanimously by Lun Bawang community leaders, and the official usage of this term is now legally binding following the passing of Interpretation Act by Sarawak’s Legislative Assembly in 2002.
The Lun Bawangs made up of one of the ethnic natives that occupied the Borneo Island for centuries. According to Tom Harrisson (1959) and S. Runciman (1960), the Lun Bawang Community is one of the earlier settlers in the mountainous regions of central Borneo and they are related to the Kelabit tribe. Both tribe are linked to a common lineage termed the Apo Duat people, of which Apo Duat is the area consisting of the Krayan highland and Kelabit Highlands.
One theory suggests that Apo Duat is the homeland of this common ancestor, and that they have expanded out to the coastal area. The migration of these people to the low lands and gradual spreading out might have been spurred by various waves of migration of the Lun Bawang people from different clans. The migration of Lun Bawang people from one clan to a region already inhabited by another clan, causes the latter to move to another region, despite them having similar culture and language. The strong clan identity of the Lun Bawang people is shown by their common tradition of identifying themselves based on their village or geographical location, for example, ‘Lun Adang’ who once resides the Adang river basin or ‘Lun Kemaloh’ who comes from the Kemaloh river.
One other theory suggests that that these Apo Duat people were once natives of old Brunei, but were pushed upriver into the highlands by the invading tribes such as Kayan, Kenyah andIban people. The ones that remained downriver (Lun Bawang people) were isolated from the ones who migrated to the highlands (Kelabit), causing their culture and language to slightly diverged.
Another theory, on the other hand, suggests that the migration originated from the opposite side of Borneo (now East Kalimantan). It was suggested that the Apo Duat people were once farmers in the lowlands downstream of Malinau river, living closely with the Tidong people. However, attacks by Muslim raiders (Bugis and Tausug) probably in the 17th century, caused them to migrate to the Kerayan highlands, whilst the Tidong people converted to Islam.
Nevertheless, these theories have yet to be proven and there are no substantial evidence to trace the origin of the Lun Bawang people or to prove any of these theories.
According to Brunei oral tradition, the Lun Bawangs (Murut) were brought under the rule of the Brunei kingdom by peaceful measures during the reign of Awang Alak Betatar. This is said to be accomplished through dealings between the Lun Bawang and Awang Alak Betatar’s brother, Awang Jerambok. Under the rule of the Brunei kingdom, the Lun Bawang were subject to taxes and tribute. The local leaders from the higher class (lun mebala or lun do’) were appointed titles of nobility and were granted office in the sultanate. Some Lun Bawang were assimilated into Malay culture.
Nevertheless, the peace dealing between the Lun Bawang and the Brunei Malay rulers was by no means everlasting as throughout the history of Brunei sultanate, the Lun Bawang had often rebelled against its Brunei ruler. It has been suggested that the insurrection of the Maruts (sic) – i.e. the Lun Bawangs – and Chinese had led to the Brunei Sultan requesting assistance from the Sulu sultanate to suppress the rebellion in 1658, which resulted in the Brunei Sultan ceding his territory of Kimanis until Tapean Durian to the Sultan of Sulu as a sign of gratitude.
Early Europeans uses the exonym Maroot, Marut, Morut or Murut to describe the Lun Bawang people, and this might have been introduced by the Brunei Malays who came in contact with them in Brunei. The earliest European written account of the Lun Bawang people is probably by Thomas Forrest during his voyage to New Guinea, the Mollucas and Balambangan in 1776. He described that the Borneans (sic - i.e. Bruneians -) tended to preclude the Chinese or European from directly dealing with the Maroot in trade, reserving the trade (as middlemen) to themselves. In John Hunt’s Sketch of Borneo or Pulo Kalamantan in 1812, he described the Lun Bawangs as aborigines of Borneo proper, and that they are much fairer and better featured than the Malays, having more strong and robust frame and are credited as a brave race of people. Europeans have also obtained the description of the Lun Bawang from Brunei Malays who came in contact with them. For example, during the voyage of American Himmaleh to Brunei, Brunei noblemen (pangeran) reported that there are 21 tribes in Brunei – Murut being one of them – and that these tribes are kafir (do not practice Islam) and practices headhunting. During Henry Keppel‘s expedition to Borneo, he noted that the Lun Bawang are inhabitant of Borneo interior, and that the Murut and Dyak people had given place to Kayan people whenever they are in contact with each other. Sir James Brooke in his journal written on December 24, 1850, described the oppression that the Lun Bawang (then called Limbang Muruts) people faced by Brunei aristocrats, and where some had fought against this tyranny.
A more elaborate European account of the Lun Bawang people is by Spenser St. John in 1860, where he described the impoverished condition of the Lun Bawang (then called Limbang Muruts) people under the rule of the Brunei Sultanate. He also gave account of the aborigines (Murut and Bisaya) rise to insurrection, however these rebellions were always suppressed by threat by the Brunei government to bring in Kayans to subdue the opposition. Spenser St.John also described the tyranny conducted by the Brunei aristocrats upon the Limbang Muruts, which include seizing their children to be sold as slaves if taxes were not paid, and on one occasion, when the Brunei capital were in a state of alarm by the marauding Kayan warriors, the Brunei aristocrat offered a whole Limbang Murut village to be pillaged, in return for the safety of the capital.
Culture and Economical Activities
Almost all of the traditional economical activities of the Lun Bawang and Lundayeh are related to rice plantation, and they cultivate both rice on hill called lati’ tana’ luun and rice from paddy field called lati’ ba. The production of rice is related to ones’ prestige/financial status, as excess of rice harvest are traditionally consumed in huge irau feast, signifying wealth and fortune. Cooked rice is wrapped inside banana leaves called Luba’ Laya, and rice is also brewed into rice wine or burak for practical reasons. Partly due to this, drinking burak had been an important (and also notorious, as is deemed by the Christian missionaries and the Brooke government) custom of the Lun Bawangs and Lundayehs, but now the rice wine production has significantly dwindled due to effort done by the Christian missionaries and Brooke government to encourage prohibition of alcohol amongst the community in the early 20th century.
Meat and fish are brined or pickled using salt and is stored in hollow bamboo stalk for a duration of a month and the pickled food is called telu’ . Meat and fish are also preserved by smoking. Salt is obtained by evaporating brine from salt spring (lubang mein).
Cattles and buffaloes are bred for their meat, and can serve as a symbol of financial status. These animals are commonly used as dowry that are presented to the bride’s family from the groom’s side.
In the old days, the men wear jackets made of tree barks called kuyu talun. Cloth wrapped around the forehead is called sigar and loin cloth is called abpar. A long machete (pelepet) is tied to the waist, especially when it needs to be carried to tribal wars. As for the women, they wear pata on their head, beret on their waist, bane around the neck and gileng or pakel is worn as ornaments on their hands and wrists.
The Lun Bawang and Lundayeh belong to a group termed as Nulang Arc group (Metcalf 1975). These ethnic (along with other ethnics such as the Berawans, the Melanaus and the Kajangs) traditionally practiced an ancient tradition of secondary treatment of the dead. In Lun Bawang, this is called mitang butung. Metcalf theorised that this practice is a characteristic of the most ancient cultural tradition in Borneo, before the arrival of other invading ethnics that influenced the diversification of culture and language in Borneo.
The Lun Bawangs called their language Buri Lun Bawang or Buri tau, ”our language” .
Festivals and Celebration
Lun Bawang people celebrates Irau Aco Lun Bawang (Lun Bawang festival) annually on the first of June in Lawas, Sarawak. This festival is traditionally a celebration of the rice harvest, but now it showcases a variety of Lun Bawang culture and events such as Ruran Ulung (beauty pageant contest) and ngiup suling (bamboo musical instrument band).
Lun Bawangs were mostly animist before the 1920s. Under the rule of the White Rajahs (Vyner Brooke) in Sarawak, Christian missionaries especially of the Borneo Evangelical Missiondenomination had more access to the Lun Bawang highlands and they also preached Christianity to the Lun Bawang people.
The majority of the Lun Bawangs are Christians, predominantly of the Borneo Evangelical Mission denomination. A small number are of other Christian denominations, such as True Jesus Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Roman Catholic Church, or of another religion, such as Islam and Buddhism.
Lun Bawang language
|Lundayeh, Lundaye, Brunei Murut, Southern Murut, Murut|
|Native speakers||first language: 300 in Brunei (1987 Langub), 12,800 including 10,000 in Lun Bawang dialect in Sarawak (1987), 2,800 in Lun Daye in Sabah (1982 SIL).
The language spoken by the Lun Bawangs (or Lundayeh) belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch, with the classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Apo Duat. The first published material written fully in the Lun Bawang language is a translation of the Bible in 1982, which is called Bala Luk Do. A dialect of the Lun Bawang language, Kemaloh Lundayeh, was recently (2006) compiled into a bilingual dictionary of Lundayeh language and English.
There are 6 vowels, 18 consonants and 5 diphthongs in the Lun Bawang language.
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||ng /ŋ/|
|Plosive||p /p/||b /b/||t /t̪/||d /d̪/||k /k/||g /ɡ/||/ʔ/|
|Fricative||s /s/||/ɣ/||h /h/|
|Approximant||l /l/||r /r/||y /j/||w /w/|
|Close||i /i/||u /u/|
|Mid||e /e, ɛ/||e /ə/||o /o, ɔ/|
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