Suku Kaum Lun Bawang berasal dan tinggal dikawasan pedalaman tanah tinggi Borneo iaitu Kalimantan timur, Brunei, Sabah dan Sarawak.Di Sarawak, digolongkan dari masyarakat Orang Ulu.

Lun Bawang dari kampung Long Tanid, Long Semadoh, Lawas, Sarawak.

Lun Bawang dari kampung Long Tanid, Long Semadoh, Lawas, Sarawak.

Suku kaum Lun Bawang di Sabah lebih dikenali sebagai Lun Dayeh yang bermaksud Orang hulu atau pedalaman, (erti asal adalah mereka yang tinggal di hulu sungai.). Sementara di Sarawak dan Brunei mereka pula dikenali sebagai Lun Bawang yang bermaksud Orang tempatan atau orang pribumi.Suku kaum Lun Bawang yang dahulu dikenali sebagai Murut juga terdapat di sepanjang persisiran sungai Lawas, Trusan dan Limbang.

Sejarah asal penempatan awal suku kaum Lun Bawang ialah di tanah tinggi Kerayan Kelabit kawasan tengah utara Borneo. Mereka telah berhijrah ke Sabah, Sarawak dan Brunei sekitar abad ke-17 dan ke-18 akan tetepi kebanyakan mereka masih ada di Kalimantan.

Cara hidup dan bahasa suku kaum Lun Bawang dan Kelabit banyak persamaan.Ini dapat dilihat juga dalam cara mereka semasa menanaman padi bukit (tana luun) dan sawah padi(Lati ba’). Nasi yang menjadi makanan mereka dibungkus dengan daun pisang atau itip dipanggil Nuba’ Laya.

Daging atau ikan yang telah diperam dengan garam serta disimpan didalam buluh selama lebih sebulan dipanggil telu’ serta rasanya akan menjadi masam masam masin sangat digemari suku kaum Lun Bawang. Begitu juga dengan salai (narar) mereka juga mendapat sumber garam dari telaga air masin yang lebih dikenali sebagai lubang main.

Dikawasan pedalaman menternak kerbau dan lembu menjadi sumber ekonomi sampingan serta menjadi hantaran mas perkhawinan pihak pengantin lelaki kepada keluarga pihak pengantin perempuan yang dipanggil purut.

Suku kaum Lun Bawang kaya dengan kraftangannya. Dahulu kala, Pakaian kaum lelaki diperbuat dari kulit kayu yang dipanggil kuyu talun. Kain yang dililit dikepala pula dipanggil sigar sementara cawat yang dipakai dipanggil abpar. Parang panjang yang diikat dipinggang dibawa untuk pergi berperang dipanggil pelepet. Bagi kaum wanita pula, mereka mengenakan pata dikepala, beret di pinggang, bane dileher dan gileng atau pakel di tangan serta lengan.

Pada umumnya suku kaum Lun Bawang beragama Kristen yang telah disebarkan oleh mubaligh kristen sekitar tahun 1928-1930an. Di Sarawak, Sabah dan Brunei majoriti mereka dari aliran Gereja Sidang Injil Borneo(SIB). Arwah Datuk Racha Umung adalah Presiden pertama SIB. Presiden SIB Sarawak

Pastor Kalip Basar yang telah terbunuh dalam nahas helikopter pada julai 2003 dan YB Judson Sakai Tagal menteri muda Sarawak juga terbunuh dalam nahas helikopter pada 2004 juga adalah dari suku Kaum Lun Bawang dan membuat nama Lun Bawang lebih dikenali di Malaysia.

Sistem pendidikan agak lewat sampai diantara suku kaum Lun Bawang. Namun begitu atas usaha yang berterusan ramai antara mereka berjaya menjadi golongan ahli profesional. Setakat ini ada lebih dari 10 orang peguam dari suku bangsa Lun Bawang.

Di Sarawak bermula pada 1hb jun setiap tahun diadakan satu pesta yang dinamakan Irau Aco Lun Bawang dirayakan di bandar Lawas sempena perayaan hari Gawai Dayak.

Semasa perayaan ini berlangsung pelbagai pertunjukan kebudayaan dari suku kaum Lun Bawang dapat disaksikan. Antara acara yang diadakan ialah “ngiup suling” atau pancaragam buluh

“Malem Padan Liu Burung idih Ruran Ulung” (malam kebudayaan untuk memperagakan pakaian tradisional serta perlawanan antara kampung atau daerah dalam sukan-sukan seperti bola sepak lelaki dan wanita, bola tampar, badminton dan bola baling. selain itu, pameran serta jualan barangan tradisional kaum Lun Bawang juga boleh didapati di luar dewan.

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Lun Bawang

Postby Nur Khadijah on Tue Dec 26, 2006 12:09 pm

Kaum Lun Bawang yang dahulunya lebih dikenali sebagai Kaum Murut (bererti orang buruk atau “dregs” – gelaran yang diberi oleh Raja Brooke, yang mana pemerintahannya ingin supaya kaum ini pupus daripada permukaan bumi Borneo : “Biarlah mereka mati ….. Lagipun mereka ibarat kasut lama yang tidak ada gunanya lagi….Negeri ini akan lebih aman jika kaum Murut dibiar pupus”. (Jungle Fire, Drunk Before Dawn, A New Dawn Over Sarawak)) merupakan etnik pribumi yang menduduki kepulauan Borneo sejak berkurun-kurun lamanya. Menurut Tom Harrison (1959) dan S. Runciman (1960), kaum ini adalah yang terawal menetap di
kawasan pergunungan di pertengahan Pulau Borneo.

Masa kini sebahagian besar kaum ini masih tinggal di Kalimantan Indonesia; 25,000 di Kalimantan, 2,000 di Sabah (dikenali sebagai Lundayeh), lebih 300 di Brunei (Crain 1978) dan lebih kurang 15,000 di Negeri Sarawak (Sarawak Statistic Dept. 1980). Di Negeri Sarawak, mereka tinggal di Bahagian Limbang, terutama sekali di Daerah Lawas.

Pemerintahan Brooke menganggap masyarakat Lun Bawang sebagai etnik yang paling teruk dan sangat berbahaya; orang pemabuk yang terhebat; rumah panjang yang paling kotor (Sarawak Gazette 1936),

Walaupun adat dan amalan tradisinya tidak jauh berbeza daripada etnik-etnik lain yang terdapat di Sarawak, dan telah diperakui bahawa Sultan Brunei yang pertama ialah seorang Lun Bawang dari keturunan Upai Semaring. Oleh sebab ketidakperhatinan pemerintahan Brooke (Berbagai penyakit merebak) dan hidup yang terpengaruh oleh pelbagai kepercayaan animisme dan pantang larang, bilangan penduduk kaum ini menurun daripada antara 20,000 kepada 5,000 orang dalam tahun 1907 dan kepada 3,000 orang pada tahun 1937 (Laporan Pegawai-Pegawai Daerah pada masa itu – Sarawak Gazette; Drunk Before Dawn).

Keadaan orang Lun Bawang terus menyedihkan sehingga seorang Pegawai Daerah melaporkan, kaum Lun Bawang sudah “facing extinction”.

Dalam keadaan yang begitu teruk ini, apabila mubaligh-mubaligh Kristian dibenarkan (pada awal tahun 1920-an tidak dibenarkan) ke kawasan Trusan dalam dekad 1930-an dan menyebarkan ajaran-ajaran Kristian, orang Lun Bawang secara keseluruhannya meninggalkan kepercayaan nenek moyang mereka dan menganut agama Kristian.

Mubaligh Kristian dari pertubuhan Borneo Evangelical Mission dari Australia yang bertanggungjawab membawa perubahan kepada masyarakat Lun Bawang sehingga tertubuhnya Sidang Injil Borneo (Evangelical Church of Borneo) selepas Perang Dunia Kedua.

Perubahan yang didatangkan oleh ajaran agama Kristian amat memeranjatkan Raja Charles Vyner Brooke sehingga beliau berkata kepada dua orang mubaligh yang berjumpa dengan beliau ketika lawatannya ke Lawas dalam tahun 1940 :

“Kamu telah membawa perubahan kepada kaum Murut (Lun Bawang) dalam masa tiga tahun saja dibandingkan dengan apa yang pihak kerajaan lakukan dalam masa 40 tahun”

Akibat perubahan ini, keadaan kehidupan kaum Lun Bawang bertambah baik dan teratur. Segala kepercayaan, pegangan animisme dan pantang larang turun temurun ditinggalkan serta-merta sehingga menyebabkan pelupusan beberapa adat resam yang masih boleh digunakan. Perubahan ini juga melibatkan aspek kesihatan, akademik dan sosio-ekonomi. Ini secara tidak langsung telah meningkatkan populasi kaum Lun Bawang.

Dalam pada itu, Persatuan Lun Bawang Sarawak ditubuhkan untuk menghidupkan kebudayaan dan adat resam yang boleh digunakan selaras dengan kepercayaan agama Kristian yang dianuti.

Kaum Lun Bawang juga telah berusaha supaya kaum Lun Bawang tidak lagi digelar sebagai “Murut” sepertimana yang telah dibuat oleh regime Raja Brooke dalam konsep pemerintahan “divide and rule”.

Penggunaannya amat sensitif seolah seseorang yang menyebut perkataan ini masih menganggap kaum Lun Bawang sebagai bangsa / kaum yang terhina, sangat berbahaya dan terburuk di Borneo. Oleh itu, biarlah perkara ini menjadi sejarah dan tidak wajar dibangkit-bangkitkan, apatah lagi kita kini dalam Kerajaan Malaysia telah hidup berharmoni dan menghormati satu dengan yang lain tanpa mengira bangsa atau kaum.

Perkara lampau ini kini telah menjadi sejarah selepas pengiktirafan oleh Kerajaan Negeri Sarawak (Dewan Undangan Negeri pada 6.5.2002) – dengan lulusnya Interpretation (Amendment) Bill 2002, iaitu pindaan kepada Interpretation Ordinance 1958) supaya kaum Lun Bawang pada hakikatnya dipanggil sebagai Lun Bawang, salah satu kaum bumiputra di Sarawak.

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NOTE: Info dari Facebook: Lun Bawang / Lun Dayeh

Photos: Facebook: Lun Bawang / Lun Dayeh 2009 and Me

Etymology

The word Lun Bawang means people of the country, whilst Lun Dayeh means upriver people or people of the interior and Lun Lod means people living downriver or near the sea. Other names are derived from geographical reference to their rice cultivation, for example Lun Baa’ (swamps) who lives near swampy areas and grow wet rice, and Lun Tana’ Luun (on the land) who cultivates dry rice.

While insisting that they never called themselves Murut, the Lun Bawangs were formerly identified as Murut by the British colonists and by outsiders (other ethnic group).[2] In Lun Bawang language, the word Murut either means ‘to massage’ or ‘to give dowry’, and these meanings have little or no relation at all to the identity of the people. The name Murut might have been derived from the word “Murud”, a mountain located near an old Lun Bawang settlement, hence might have just meant ‘mountain men’ or ‘hill people’ but was instead used by the colonist to identify this ethnic.

In addition to that, ethnologist found that the classification under the name Murut is confusing as the term is used differently in Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei, that is whilst in Brunei and Sarawak it is used to describe the Lun Bawang people, in Sabah it is used to identify an ethnic group that is linguistically and culturally different from the Lun Bawangs. [3] [4]

In Sarawak, the decision to replace the term ‘Murut’ to ‘Lun Bawang’ to identify this ethnic group was made unanimously by Lun Bawang community leaders, and this decision was published in the Sarawak Gazette.[5][6] In the early 1970s, the use of the term Lun Bawang began to gain popularity amongst ethnologist and linguist, and it is now the most commonly used term to identify this ethnic group.

Orgin

The Lun Bawangs made up of one of the ethnic natives that occupied the Borneo Island for centuries. According to Tom Harrisson (1959) and S. Runciman (1960), the Lun Bawang Community is one of the earlier settlers in the mountainous regions of central Borneo and they are related to the Kelabit tribe. It is said that their dialects have some similarities as this may be due to the fact that the Kelabits are also another tribe from the mountainous regions of central Borneo and the Lun Bawang dialect is of the Kelabitic lineage.

The Kelabit people, who has close similarity to the Lun Bawang people, maintain that Lun Bawang people were once Kelabit people who originally resides the Kerayan-Kelabit highland of Central Northeast Borneo. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, they gradually migrated to the low lands near today’s Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei.

One theory suggests that the migration of the Lun Bawang people to the low lands and gradual spreading out is due to various waves of migration of Lun Bawang people from different clans. The migration of Lun Bawang people from one clan to a region already inhabited by another clan, causes the latter to move to another region, despite them having similar culture and language. The strong clan identity of the Lun Bawang people is shown by their common tradition of identifying themselves based on their village or geographical location, for example, ‘Lun Adang’ who once resides the Adang river basin or ‘Lun Kemaloh’ who comes from the Kemaloh river.

Another theory suggests that the Kelabitic people were once natives of old Brunei, but were pushed upriver into the highlands by the invading tribes such as Kayan, Kenyah and Iban people. The ones that remained downriver (Lun Bawang people) were isolated from the ones who migrated to the highlands (Kelabit), causing their culture and language to slightly diverged.

Sather (1972) however theorised that a similar occurrence happened in East Borneo (now East Kalimantan). The Lundayeh people were once farmers in the lowlands downstream of Malinau river, living closely with the Tidong people. However, attacks by Muslim raiders (Bugis and Tausug) probably in the 17th century, caused them to migrate to the Kerayan highlands, whilst the Tidong people converted to Islam. [7]Nevertheless, these theories have yet to be proven and there are no substantial evidence to trace the origin of the Lun Bawang people or to prove any of these theories.

History

According to oral tradition, the Lun Bawangs (Murut) were brought under the rule of the Brunei kingdom by peaceful measures during the reign of Awang Alak Betatar. This is said to be accomplished through dealings between the Lun Bawang and Awang Alak Betatar’s brother, Awang Jerambok.

Under the rule of the Brunei kingdom, the Lun Bawang were subject to taxes and tribute. The local leaders from the higher class (lun mebala or lun do’) were apponted titles of nobility and were granted office in the sultanate. Some Lun Bawang were assimilated into Malay culture.

The earliest European written account of the Lun Bawang people is probably by Sir James Brooke in his journal written on December 24, 1850, where he described the oppression that the Lun Bawang (then called Limbang Muruts) people faced by Brunei aristocrats, and where some had fought against this tyranny.

Earlier description of the Lun Bawang people by Europeans were normally brief. Since the beginning, the Europeans had already called the Lun Bawang by the exonym Murut. For example, in Captain Bethune’s Notes on Borneo (1846), he described

The Muruts – Hill tribes of interior of Brune; much oppressed by the Kayans; little known; use the sumpitan.

In James Brooke’s (and Henry Keppel’s) book The Expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Dido For the Suppression of Piracy (1846), the Murut people were described as inhabitant of Borneo interior, and that the Murut and Dyak people had given place to Kayan people whenever they are in contact with each other.

A more elaborate European account of the Lun Bawang people is by Spenser St. John in 1860, where he described the impoverished condition of the Lun Bawang (then called Limbang Muruts) people under the rule of the Brunei Sultanate. He also gave account of the aborigines (Murut and Bisaya) rise to insurrection, however these rebellions were always suppressed by threat by the Brunei government to bring in Kayans to subdue the opposition.

Spenser St.John also described the tyranny conducted by the Brunei aristocrats upon the Limbang Muruts, which include seizing their children to be sold as slaves if taxes were not paid, and on one occasion, when the Brunei capital were in a state of alarm by the marauding Kayan warriors, the Brunei aristocrat offered a whole Limbang Murut village to be pillaged, in return for the safety of the capital.

Religon

Lun Bawangs were mostly animist before the 1920s. Under the rule of the White Rajahs (Vyner Brooke) in Sarawak, Christian missionaries especially of the Borneo Evangelical Mission denomination had more access to the Lun Bawang highlands and they also preached Christianity to the Lun Bawang people.

The majority of the Lun Bawangs are Christians, predominantly of the Borneo Evangelical Mission denomination. A small number are of other Christian denominations, such as True Jesus Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Roman Catholic Church, or of another religion, such as Islam and Buddhism.

Festival and Celebration

Lun Bawang people celebrates Irau Aco Lun Bawang (Lun Bawang festival) annually on the first of June in Lawas, Sarawak. This festival is traditionally a celebration of the rice harvest, but now it showcases a variety of Lun Bawang culture and events such as Ruran Ulung (beauty pageant contest) and ngiup suling (bamboo musical instrument band).

The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East Kalimantan, Brunei (Temburong District), southwest of Sabah (Interior Division) and northern region of Sarawak (Limbang Division). In the Malaysian state of Sarawak, the Lun Bawang are categorised under the Orang Ulu people; whilst in the neighbouring state of Sabah and Krayan valley in Kalimantan, they are more commonly known as Lundayeh or Lun Daye. At a regional level, the Lun Bawang people identified themselves using various names, for example Lun Lod, Lun Baa’ and Lun Tana Luun.

Lun Bawang people are traditionally agriculturalists and practise animal husbandry such as rearing poultry, pigs and buffaloes. Lun Bawangs are also known to be hunters and fishermen.

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MORE INFO, CLICK HERE: http://lunbawangtribes.blogspot.com/

In 1900, Vyner Brooke brought a force of about a thousand men to go into the mountainous Lun bawang country hoping to catch the rebellious chiefs. They fought in the jungle but could not pin the natives chiefs because of the terrain and thick jungle.Although they failed to catch the chiefs, they burned about 20 long houses before they left the highlands. The Brooke administration would not permit other people to go up among the tribe for fear of being killed because these natives were fierce headhunters.When they left their old life ways and belief and embraced Jesus Christ, the Lun Bawang became the cleanest and the best tribe of Sarawak.Today, many Lun Bawang are highly educated.

READ MORE? PLEASE CLICK HERE : http://lunbawangtribes.blogspot.com/

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READ ORIGINAL :http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Lun+Bawang

Lun Bawang

Lun Bawang
Lun Bawang
Total population
c. 38100
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia 25000 (1987 census) [1]
Malaysia 12800 (1982 SIL) [1]
Brunei 300 (1987 Langub) [1]
Languages
Lun Bawang; dialects include TrusanLun DayePapadiLun DayahAdangTabun,TrengKolurPadasTrusanLepu Potong
Religion
Predominantly Christianity, minorities areIslam and animist
Related ethnic groups
Kelabit, Lengilu, Putoh, Sa’ban & Tring

The Lun Bawang is an ethnic group found in Central Borneo. They are indigenous to the highlands of East KalimantanBrunei (Temburong District), southwest of Sabah (Interior Division) and northern region of Sarawak(Limbang Division). In the Malaysian state of Sarawak, the Lun Bawang (through the term Murut) are officially recognized by the Constitution as native of Sarawak[2] and are categorised under the Orang Ulu people; whilst in the neighbouring state of Sabah and Krayan highland in Kalimantan, they are more commonly known asLundayeh or Lun Daye. In Brunei, they are also identified by law as one of the 7 natives (indigenous people) of Brunei, through the term Murut.[3] At a regional level, the Lun Bawang people identified themselves using various names, for example Lun Lod, Lun Baa’ and Lun Tana Luun.

Lun Bawang people are traditionally agriculturalists and practise animal husbandry such as rearing poultry, pigs and buffaloes. Lun Bawangs are also known to be hunters and fishermen.

Etymology

The word Lun Bawang means people of the country, whilst Lun Dayeh means upriver people or people of the interior and Lun Lod means people living downriver or near the sea. Other names are derived from geographical reference to their rice cultivation, for example Lun Baa’ (swamps) who lives near swampy areas and grow wet rice, and Lun Tana’ Luun (on the land) who cultivates dry rice.

While insisting that they never called themselves Murut, the Lun Bawangs were formerly identified as Murut by theBritish colonists and by outsiders (other ethnic group).[4] In Lun Bawang language, the word Murut either means ‘to massage’ or ‘to give dowry’, and these meanings have little or no relation at all to the identity of the people.[5]The name Murut might have been derived from the word “Murud”, a mountain located near an old Lun Bawang settlement, hence might have just meant ‘mountain men’ or ‘hill people’ but was instead used by the colonist to identify this ethnic.

In addition to that, ethnologist found that the classification under the name Murut is confusing as the term is used differently in Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei, that is whilst in Brunei and Sarawak it is used to describe the Lun Bawang people, in Sabah it is used to identify an ethnic group that is linguistically and culturally different from the Lun Bawangs.[6][7]

In the early 1970s, the use of the term Lun Bawang began to gain popularity amongst ethnologist and linguist, and it is now the most commonly used term to identify this ethnic group. In Sarawak, the decision to replace the term ‘Murut’ to ‘Lun Bawang’ to identify this ethnic group was made unanimously by Lun Bawang community leaders,[5] and the official usage of this term is now legally binding following the passing of Interpretation Act by Sarawak’s Legislative Assembly in 2002.[8]

Origin

The Lun Bawangs made up of one of the ethnic natives that occupied the Borneo Island for centuries. According to Tom Harrisson (1959) and S. Runciman (1960), the Lun Bawang Community is one of the earlier settlers in the mountainous regions of central Borneo and they are related to the Kelabit tribe. Both tribe are linked to a common lineage termed the Apo Duat people, of which Apo Duat is the area consisting of the Krayan highland and Kelabit Highlands.

One theory suggests that Apo Duat is the homeland of this common ancestor, and that they have expanded out to the coastal area.[9] The migration of these people to the low lands and gradual spreading out might have been spurred by various waves of migration of the Lun Bawang people from different clans. The migration of Lun Bawang people from one clan to a region already inhabited by another clan, causes the latter to move to another region, despite them having similar culture and language. The strong clan identity of the Lun Bawang people is shown by their common tradition of identifying themselves based on their village or geographical location, for example, ‘Lun Adang’ who once resides the Adang river basin or ‘Lun Kemaloh’ who comes from the Kemaloh river.

One other theory suggests that that these Apo Duat people were once natives of old Brunei, but were pushed upriver into the highlands by the invading tribes such as KayanKenyah and Iban people. The ones that remained downriver (Lun Bawang people) were isolated from the ones who migrated to the highlands (Kelabit), causing their culture and language to slightly diverged.

Another theory, on the other hand, suggests that the migration originated from the opposite side of Borneo (now East Kalimantan). It was suggested that the Apo Duat people were once farmers in the lowlands downstream of Malinau river, living closely with the Tidong people. However, attacks by Muslim raiders (Bugis and Tausug) probably in the 17th century, caused them to migrate to the Kerayan highlands, whilst the Tidong people converted to Islam.[10]

Nevertheless, these theories have yet to be proven and there are no substantial evidence to trace the origin of the Lun Bawang people or to prove any of these theories.

History

According to Brunei oral tradition, the Lun Bawangs (Murut) were brought under the rule of the Brunei kingdom by peaceful measures during the reign of Awang Alak Betatar. This is said to be accomplished through dealings between the Lun Bawang and Awang Alak Betatar’s brother, Awang Jerambok.[11] Under the rule of the Brunei kingdom, the Lun Bawang were subject to taxes and tribute. The local leaders from the higher class (lun mebala or lun do’) were appointed titles of nobility and were granted office in the sultanate. Some Lun Bawang were assimilated into Malay culture.[12]

Nevertheless, the peace dealing between the Lun Bawang and the Brunei Malay rulers was by no means everlasting as throughout the history of Brunei sultanate, the Lun Bawang had often rebelled against its Brunei ruler. It has been suggested that the insurrection of the Maruts (sic) – i.e. the Lun Bawangs – and Chinese had led to the Brunei Sultan requesting assistance from the Sulu sultanate to suppress the rebellion in 1658, which resulted in the Brunei Sultan ceding his territory of Kimanis until Tapean Durian to the Sultan of Sulu as a sign of gratitude.[13]

Early Europeans uses the exonym MarootMarutMorut or Murut to describe the Lun Bawang people, and this might have been introduced by the Brunei Malays who came in contact with them in Brunei. The earliest European written account of the Lun Bawang people is probably by Thomas Forrest during his voyage to New Guinea, the Mollucas and Balambangan in 1776. He described that the Borneans (sic – i.e. Bruneians -) tended to preclude the Chinese or European from directly dealing with the Maroot in trade, reserving the trade (as middlemen) to themselves.[14] In John Hunt’s Sketch of Borneo or Pulo Kalamantan in 1812, he described the Lun Bawangs as aborigines of Borneo proper, and that they are much fairer and better featured than the Malays, having more strong and robust frame and are credited as a brave race of people.[15] Europeans have also obtained the description of the Lun Bawang from Brunei Malays who came in contact with them. For example, during the voyage of American Himmaleh to Brunei, Brunei noblemen (pangeran) reported that there are 21 tribes in Brunei – Murut being one of them – and that these tribes are kafir (do not practice Islam) and practices headhunting.[16] During Henry Keppel‘s expedition to Borneo, he noted that the Lun Bawang are inhabitant of Borneo interior, and that the Murut and Dyak people had given place to Kayan people whenever they are in contact with each other.[17] Sir James Brooke in his journal written on December 24, 1850, described the oppression that the Lun Bawang (then called Limbang Muruts) people faced by Brunei aristocrats, and where some had fought against this tyranny.[18]

A more elaborate European account of the Lun Bawang people is by Spenser St. John in 1860, where he described the impoverished condition of the Lun Bawang (then called Limbang Muruts) people under the rule of the Brunei Sultanate. He also gave account of the aborigines (Murut and Bisaya) rise to insurrection, however these rebellions were always suppressed by threat by the Brunei government to bring in Kayans to subdue the opposition.[19][20]Spenser St.John also described the tyranny conducted by the Brunei aristocrats upon the Limbang Muruts, which include seizing their children to be sold as slaves if taxes were not paid, and on one occasion, when the Brunei capital were in a state of alarm by the marauding Kayan warriors, the Brunei aristocrat offered a whole Limbang Murut village to be pillaged, in return for the safety of the capital.[20]

Culture and Economical Activities

Almost all of the traditional economical activities of the Lun Bawang and Lundayeh are related to rice plantation, and they cultivate both rice on hill called lati’ tana’ luun and rice from paddy field called lati’ ba.[21][22] The production of rice is related to ones’ prestige/financial status, as excess of rice harvest are traditionally consumed in huge irau feast, signifying wealth and fortune. Cooked rice is wrapped inside banana leaves called Luba’ Laya, and rice is also brewed into rice wine or burak for practical reasons. Partly due to this, drinking burak had been an important (and also notorious, as is deemed by the Christian missionaries and the Brooke government) custom of the Lun Bawangs and Lundayehs, but now the rice wine production has significantly dwindled due to effort done by the Christian missionaries and Brooke government to encourage prohibition of alcohol amongst the community in the early 20th century.

Meat and fish are brined or pickled using salt and is stored in hollow bamboo stalk for a duration of a month and the pickled food is called telu’ . Meat and fish are also preserved by smoking. Salt is obtained by evaporating brine from salt spring (lubang mein).

Cattles and buffaloes are bred for their meat, and can serve as a symbol of financial status. These animals are commonly used as dowry that are presented to the bride’s family from the groom’s side.

In the old days, the men wear jackets made of tree barks called kuyu talun. Cloth wrapped around the forehead is called sigar and loin cloth is called abpar. A long machete (pelepet) is tied to the waist, especially when it needs to be carried to tribal wars. As for the women, they wear pata on their head, beret on their waist, bane around the neck and gileng or pakel is worn as ornaments on their hands and wrists.

The Lun Bawang and Lundayeh belong to a group termed as Nulang Arc group (Metcalf 1975). These ethnic (along with other ethnics such as the Berawans, the Melanaus and the Kajangs) traditionally practiced an ancient tradition of secondary treatment of the dead. In Lun Bawang, this is called mitang butung. Metcalf theorised that this practice is a characteristic of the most ancient cultural tradition in Borneo, before the arrival of other invading ethnics that influenced the diversification of culture and language in Borneo.[23]

Language

Main article: Lun Bawang language

The Lun Bawangs called their language Buri Lun Bawang or Buri tau, ”our language” .

Festivals and Celebration

Lun Bawang people celebrates Irau Aco Lun Bawang (Lun Bawang festival) annually on the first of June in LawasSarawak. This festival is traditionally a celebration of the rice harvest, but now it showcases a variety of Lun Bawang culture and events such as Ruran Ulung (beauty pageant contest) and ngiup suling (bamboo musical instrument band).

Religion

Lun Bawangs were mostly animist before the 1920s. Under the rule of the White Rajahs (Vyner Brooke) in Sarawak, Christian missionaries especially of the Borneo Evangelical Mission denomination had more access to the Lun Bawang highlands and they also preached Christianity to the Lun Bawang people.[24]

The majority of the Lun Bawangs are Christians, predominantly of the Borneo Evangelical Mission denomination. A small number are of other Christian denominations, such as True Jesus Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Roman Catholic Church, or of another religion, such as Islam andBuddhism.

References

  1. a b c Ethnologue report for language code:lnd
  2. ^ Constitution of Malaysia, ed., Article 162 (7), retrieved 2010-09-25
  3. ^ Laws of Brunei, Chapter 15: Brunei Nationality Act, ed. (2010-09-25), 4(2), pp. 4
  4. ^ Daniel Chew, ed. (2004), Borders of kinship and ethnicity: cross-border relations between the Kelalan Valley, Sarawak, and the Bawan Valley, East Kalimantan, retrieved 2008-04-10
  5. a b Meechang Tuei, ed. (1995), Masyarakat Lun Bawang Sarawak: Satu Pengenalan, Kuching, Sarawak: Desktop Publisher Sdn. Bhd., pp. 3–5,ISBN 983-62-4321-6, retrieved 2008-04-10
  6. ^ Pelita Brunei – Sastera dan Budaya
  7. ^ Appel, G.M., ed. (September 1969), The Status of Research among the Northern and Southern Muruts1, Maine, USA: Association for Asian Studies at Brandeis University, pp. 18–21, retrieved 2008-04-10
  8. ^ Abdul Hakim Bujang, ed. (7 May 2002), Interpretation (Amendment) Bill: ‘Sea Dayaks’, ‘Land Dayaks’ will be dropped while Lun Bawang will no longer be classified as ‘Muruts’, Sarawak: Sarawak Tribune, retrieved 2008-04-10
  9. ^ Reed L. Wadley, ed. (2005), Histories of the Borneo environment: economic, political and social dimensions of change and continuity, Leiden, The Netherlands: KITLV Press, pp. 253, ISBN 90-6718-254-0, retrieved 2008-04-10
  10. ^ Cristina Eghenter, Bernard Sellato, G. Simon Devung, ed. (2004), Social Science Research and Conservation Management in the Interior of Borneo, Unraveling past and present interactions of people and forest, Indonesia Printer, Indonesia: CIFOR, WWF Indonesia, UNESCO and FORD foundation, pp. 25, ISBN 979-3361-02-6, retrieved 2008-04-10
  11. ^ Charles Hose, William McDougall, ed. (1912), The Pagan Tribes of Borneo, A Description of Their Physical Moral and Intellectual ConditionII, retrieved 2008-06-17
  12. ^ Keat Gin Ooi, ed. (2004), Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, pp. 272, ISBN 1-57607-771-3, retrieved 2008-04-02
  13. ^ J Hunt Esq, ed. (1812), Sketch of Borneo or Pulo KalamantanVIII, Bencoolen: Sumatran Mission Press, pp. 10, retrieved 2010-09-26
  14. ^ Captain Thomas Forrest, ed. (1776), A voyage to New Guinea, and the Moluccas, from Balambangan, New Bond Street, London: G Scott, J Robson, pp. 383, retrieved 2010-09-26
  15. ^ J Hunt Esq, ed. (1812), Sketch of Borneo or Pulo KalamantanVIII, Bencoolen: Sumatran Mission Press, pp. 3, retrieved 2010-09-25
  16. ^ J T Dickenson, ed. (1838), “Notices of the City of Borneo and Its Inhabitant, Made During the Voyage of American Brig Himmaleh in the Indian Archipelago, in 1837.” The Chinese RepositoryVIII, originally Canton: Adamant Media (Elibron Classics), pp. 133, ISBN 1-4021-5639-9, retrieved 2010-09-25
  17. ^ Captain The Hon. Henry Keppel, R.N., ed. (1846), The Expedition to Borneo of H.M.S. Dido for The Suppression of Piracy with Extracts from The Journal of James Brooke, Esq. of SarawakII, Great New Street, Fettler Lane, London: Robson, Level and Franklyn, pp. 171, retrieved 2010-09-25
  18. ^ Captain The Hon. Henry Keppel, R.N., ed. (1853), A Visit to the Indian Archipelago in H.M. Ship Maeander: With Portions of the Private Journal of Sir James Brooke, K.C.B, New Burlington Street, London: swald Walters B. Brierly, R. Bentley, Harvard University, pp. 116, retrieved 2010-09-25
  19. ^ Leigh R Wright, ed. (1977), Brunei: A Historical relic17, Hong Kong: Journal of Hong Kong Branch of the Asiatic Society, pp. 19, retrieved 2008-04-02
  20. a b Spencer St John, ed. (1860), Life in the Forest of the Far EastII, 65 Cornhill London: Smith, Elder and Co, pp. 55, retrieved 2008-04-02
  21. ^ Christine Padoch, ed. (1983), Agricultural Practices of the Kerayan Lun Dayeh15 (1), University of Wisconsin: Borneo Research Bulletin, pp. 33–37, retrieved 2008-09-04
  22. ^ Mika Okushima, ed. (1999), Wet rice cultivation and the Kayanic peoples of East Kalimantan: some possible factors explaining their preference for dry rice cultivation (1).(Research Notes), Borneo Research Bulletin, pp. 33–37, retrieved 2008-09-04
  23. ^ Peter Metcalf, ed. (1975), The Distribution of Secondary Treatment of the Dead in Central North Borneo7(2), Harvard University: Borneo Research Bulletin, pp. 54–59, retrieved 2008-08-27
  24. ^ Jim Huat Tan, ed. (1975), The Borneo Evangelical Mission (BEM) and the Sidang Injil Borneo (SIB), 1928-1979: A Study of the Planting and Development of an Indigenous Church, pp. 24–27, retrieved 2008-09-03
Ethnic groups in Malaysia by region
Nationwide Banjarese • Bugis • Malay • Chinese • Indian
Peninsular Malaysia Baba Nyonya • Malaccan Portuguese • Chitty • Malaysian Siam • Minangkabau • Orang Asli
Sarawak Bidayuh • Bisaya • Bukitan • Iban • Kayan • Kedayan • Kelabit • Kenyah • Lun Bawang • Melanau • Penan • Punan • Selako • Ukit
Sabah Bajau • Dusun • Ida’an • Kadazan • Lotud • Murut • Orang Sungai • Rungus • Suluk
Expatriates Bangladeshis • Filipinos • Japanese • Koreans • Nepalis • Pakistanis
Usage samples from TheFreeLibrary.com
The term lun bawangliterally means ‘people of the place.Past meets future: a trans-border forum for a sustainable future for … by Eghenter, Cristina; Langub, JaylBorneo Research BulletinThe Sarawak “Muruts” now call themselves Lun Bawang, and speakers of a closely related Kelabitic dialect living in Sabah and Kalimantan call themselves Lundayeh.

Kamus Murut Timugon-Melayu dengan Ikhtisar Etnografi, 2004 by Clayre, BeatriceBorneo Research Bulletin

This earlier trip was undertaken specifically to help resolve a dispute between Lun Bawang and Kelabit concerning a Kelabit man who had run

The diary of a district officer: Alastair Morrison’s 1953 trip to the … by Amster, Matthew H.Borneo Research Bulletin

Found 18 matches for Lun Bawang

1-18 out of 18 article(s)

Title Author Type Date Words
Peter Wesley Martin 1949-2009. Obituary Jan 1, 2009 2628
Notes on the Seping of Belaga District, Sarawak. Langub, Jayl Jan 1, 2009 11337
Past meets future: a trans-border forum for a sustainable future for the highlands of Borneo. Eghenter, Cristina; Langub, Jayl Report Jan 1, 2008 3044
Penan and the Pulong Tau National Park: historical links and contemporary life. Langub, Jayl Company overview Jan 1, 2008 15388
Borneo bibliography 2006. Horton, A.V.M. Jan 1, 2006 10011
Baskets from the forest: Kelabit baskets of Long Peluan. Mashman, Valerie Jan 1, 2006 7200
Kamus Murut Timugon-Melayu dengan Ikhtisar Etnografi, 2004. Clayre, Beatrice Jan 1, 2006 1021
The diary of a district officer: Alastair Morrison’s 1953 trip to the Kelabit Highlands. Amster, Matthew H. Jan 1, 2005 6351
Notes from the editor. Editorial Jan 1, 2004 2477
Borders of kinship and ethnicity: cross-border relations between the Kelalan Valley, Sarawak, and the Bawan Valley, East Kalimantan. Chew, Daniel Jan 1, 2004 14417
Boundaries, territorial domains, and Kelabit customary practices: discovering the hidden landscape *. Bulan, Ramy Jan 1, 2003 21975
Transformation of the Iban land use system in post independence Sarawak. Ngidang, Dimbab Jan 1, 2003 8813
Food resources and changing patterns of resource use among the the Lundayeh of the Ulu Padas, Sabah. Hoare, Alison Jan 1, 2003 7988
Interethnic ties along the Kalimantan-Sarawak border: the Kelabit and Lun Berian in the Kelabit-Kerayan Highlands. (Research Notes). Bala, Poline Jan 1, 2001 4330
Bibliography. Bibliography Jan 1, 1999 3032
Wet rice cultivation and the Kayanic peoples of East Kalimantan: some possible factors explaining their preference for dry rice cultivation (1). (Research Notes). Okushima, Mika Jan 1, 1999 12399
Archive of 1971-74 and 1985-89 oral literature projects in Sarawak. (Brief Communications). Rubenstein, Carol Jan 1, 1999 1745
Disappearing trees, disappearing culture. Weissman, Robert Apr 1, 1994 2018

The Free Library > Search Keyword

Komen-komen
  1. […] Lun BawangSementara di Sarawak dan Brunei mereka pula dikenali sebagai Lun Bawang yang bermaksud Orang tempatan atau orang pribumi.Suku kaum Lun Bawang yang dahulu dikenali sebagai Murut juga terdapat di sepanjang persisiran sungai Lawas, … […]

  2. siti fatimah binti mohd said berkata:

    wih mawa lunbawang

  3. rani dong berkata:

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    Kelayakan :
     Memiliki SPM
     Berusia 18 hingga 25 tahun
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  4. Steffi Ann Tabari berkata:

    Plaba do ayud2 luk idih bang blog nih..merepet bang aceh kereb napeh uih pun miek ngenau blog kudeng nih,peburi ratnan hak tau lun bawang n sarawak.. =)

  5. racheal berkata:

    kudeh kan wih pian madak lam lunbwg.sedang kan saya org melanau p mix kelabit lunbawang.kenapa arr..apuu..btw wih mawa lunbawang:)

  6. Bini Collin M berkata:

    I likes Lun Bawang so much!!! Hopefully i can marry wit lun bwg men one day!!! Pray 4 me yea!!!

  7. mock berkata:

    anun bala tau??how about lun bawang laud? bcoz i dont think that all misionary will fly by helicopter to ba kelalan, they need to use trusan river to up stream, all about lun bawang ba kelalan lah, long semadoh lah, why there no lun bawang lun trusan??? even this lun bawang who trade with malays and chinese, how come there no story bout em???i will come out with this lun bawang laud blog in future…anyway great blog about lun bawang u have here…

    • Balan Berauk berkata:

      Tabi kuan muh mock,

      Bala do idi bala lun bawang. berusaha te’ ui nakap info/ayud luk cerita’ ratnan pupuh tau lun laud @ Trusan, iamo’ ui pun heran kuh ngudeh naa inan atau masi’ info ratnan cerita lun laud @ lun Trusan. Ui ngitun taman idi tinan kuh… buri deh pupuh tau lun bawang inih mepura’ maya anud abpa’ ruab/Trusan neh idi inan te’ nepura’ ine’ paa sabah. limbang idi Brunei. Buri ina’, pupuh kuh pa trusan yeh ineh inul ‘De Pala’ nanud’.

      Tabi idi sembayang.

      Balan Berauk

  8. sara luvbe berkata:

    tabi kuan tau pupu lun bawang,ba do awang niat ku maca bala tau lun bawang bang blog
    mock,na tau pupu lun trusan melagan kele,,ku ngudeh dih???hemmm yapeh tau pupu lun trusan???silagan muyuh,,,

    • Balan Berauk berkata:

      Sara luvbe,

      Mawang niat iko ngalap kareb rucu bang blog kinih. berusaha tu tu ui pian ‘ngelagan’ netau pupuh lun bawang bang arang gawa’ melalui ayud idi gaber gaber pale pupuh tau miek keli’ dulun agan pana’ yap tau masi’. Inan peh geragan nai ngayud… nimun nai ngukab aceh dinai blog/web.

      Tabi idi sembayang.

      Balan Berauk

  9. Andrew McBuster berkata:

    Hi Balan, glad you quoted some info on Lun Bawang in wikipedia article (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lun_Bawang), perhaps you could help us by rating the wikipedia article ? 🙂

  10. hi Balan Berauk,

    anun bala ko? ba do anun luk tinayut minih bang blog ni. ba geregan ui pian ngimun ngayut te. pian mutuh izin ui ni rat kemuh. miek ui ngalap info2 rat blog minih? pengeh ui selesai ngayut blog kidih, ui ngereng website idi ngadan mu.

    kinanak Lun Tau

  11. blessdanceinchrist berkata:

    salam kuan muyuh… saya ingin bertanya.. apakah permainan tradisional lunbawang dan lagu tradisional lunbawang?

  12. Erica Agustin berkata:

    pian keli pasal latar belakang tarian tradisional lunbawang wih sen..miek e-mail ame negkuh ka??

    • Balan Berauk berkata:

      Hi Erica,

      Mawang niat papu nemuh bang webs kinih. Mala nemuh masih bang belajar kiteh nih te. ui pun masih nakap sejarah latar belakang seni, kebudayaan dan adat adat tau lun bawang.

      Tabi.

      Balan Berauk

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