Posted: 25 November 2010 in Aktiviti, General, Life, Religion, Sejarah, Uncategorized
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Peta Sarawak

Peta Sarawak

Salam untuk pembaca yang singgah. Sepanjang menetap lebih 10 tahun di tanah Semenanjung ini, sering kali kami yang berasal dari Sarawak diajukan soalan yang mengelirukan yang datang dari sebahagian orang yang tidak membaca dan tahu sejarah. Kami juga sering dilayan kelas ke-2 dalam pekerjaan, sosial dan dan sering dipandang serong. Bukan bermaksud mengata, tetapi demi menjaga keharmonian ‘1Malaysia’ yang dilaung laungkan saban hari, biarlah kami jawab soalan yang berbunyi seperti; ” kamu disarawak tinggal atas pokokkah?’, Disarawak pakai Ringgit Malaysiakah?’ , dengan berfikiran positif.


Dibawah ingin saya kepilkan ‘agreement’ yang saya ambil dari Wikipedia dan telah dibuat sebelum Sarawak ,Sabah dan Singapura  bergabung dengan Malaya membentuk ‘Malaysia’.

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

The 20-point agreement, or the 20-point memorandum, is a list of 20 points drawn up by North Borneo, proposing terms for its incorporation into the new federation as the State of Sabah, during negotiations prior to the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Some of the twenty points were incorporated, to varying degrees, into what became the Constitution of Malaysia; others were merely accepted orally, thus not gaining legal status. The memorandum often serves as a focal point amongst those who argue that Sabah’s rights within the Federation have been eroded over time


The 20 points were written with a view to safeguarding the interests, rights, and the autonomy of the people of Sabah upon the formation of the federation of Malaysia. A similar proposal, with certain differences in content, was made by Sarawak, and is commonly referred to as the18-point agreement.

Attention is often drawn to these memoranda by those who believe that their principles were not subsequently adhered to after federation. There have been numerous calls for the 20 point memorandum to be reviewed so as to take into account social, economic, and political changes over time

Brief timeline of related events (1962)

21 March: At a meeting of the Greater Malaysia Committee there was agreement that it would be preferable to wait for the Cobbold Commission, which had been tasked with assessment of support for the proposal in North Borneo and Sarawak, to complete its report, in order to consider its findings before a decision was made on the federation of Malaysia.

  • 21 June: The Cobbold Report was completed and submitted to the prime ministers of Britain and Malaya (confidentially). The report concluded that one third fully supported the idea, one third were in favour provided that safeguards were included, and the remaining one third were divided between those who would prefer North Borneo and Sarawak to gain independence prior to the merger and those who rejected the merger outright. The Commission’s view was – firm support for a federated Malaysia (with transfer of sovereignty within twelve months), incorporating a transitional arrangement in which the British would remain for the first few years.
  • 31 July: The British and Malayan governments decided in principle that the proposed Federation of Malaysia should be brought into being by 31 August 1963. An Inter-Governmental Committee (IGC) was to be formed to work on future constitutional arrangements.
  • August: The Report was published to all parties. Reportedly, this came as a surprise to North Borneo.
  • 13 – 14 August: Donald Stephens convened a meeting of political leaders who drew up a 14 point (later 20 point) memorandum of minimum demands. This gained support from Sarawak.

12 & 26 September (respectively): North Borneo and Sarawak legislative council agreed to the formation of Malaysia on condition that state rights were safeguarded.

The Agreement

Point 1: Religion

While there was no objection to Islam being the national religion of Malaysia there should be no State religion in North Borneo, and the provisions relating to Islam in the present Constitution of Malaya should not apply to North Borneo

Point 2: Language

  • a. Malay should be the national language of the Federation
  • b. English should continue to be used for a period of 10 years after Malaysia Day
  • c. English should be an official language of North Borneo for all purposes, State or Federal, without limitation of time.

Point 3: Constitution

Whilst accepting that the present Constitution of the Federation of Malaya should form the basis of the Constitution of Malaysia, the Constitution of Malaysia should be a completely new document drafted and agreed in the light of a free association of states and should not be a series of amendments to a Constitution drafted and agreed by different states in totally different circumstances. A new Constitution for North Borneo (Sabah) was of course essential.

Point 4: Head of Federation

The Head of State in North Borneo should not be eligible for election as Head of the Federation

Point 5: Name of Federation

Malaysia” but not “Melayu Raya”

Point 6: Immigration

Control over immigration into any part of Malaysia from outside should rest with the Central Government but entry into North Borneo should also require the approval of the State Government. The Federal Government should not be able to veto the entry of persons into North Borneo for State Government purposes except on strictly security grounds. North Borneo should have unfettered control over the movements of persons other than those in Federal Government employ from other parts of Malaysia into North Borneo.

Point 7: Right of Secession

There should be no right to secede from the Federation

Point 8: Borneanisation

Borneanisation of the public service should proceed as quickly as possible

Point 9: British Officers

Every effort should be made to encourage British Officers to remain in the public service until their places can be taken by suitably qualified people from North Borneo

Point 10: Citizenship

The recommendation in paragraph 148(k) of the Report of the Cobbold Commission should govern the citizenship rights in the Federation of North Borneo subject to the following amendments:

  • a) sub-paragraph (i) should not contain the proviso as to five years residence
  • b) in order to tie up with our law, sub-paragraph (ii)(a) should read “7 out of 10 years” instead of “8 out of 10 years”
  • c) sub-paragraph (iii) should not contain any restriction tied to the citizenship of parents – a person born in North Borneo after Malaysia must be federal citizen[

Point 11: Tariffs and Finance

North Borneo should retain control of its own finance, development and tariff[8], and should have the right to work up its own taxation and to raise loans on its own credit.

Point 12: Special position of indigenous races

In principle the indigenous races of North Borneo should enjoy special rights analogous to those enjoyed by Malays in Malaya, but the present Malaya formula in this regard is not necessarily applicable in North Borneo

Point 13: State Government

  • a) the Chief Minister should be elected by unofficial members of Legislative Council
  • b) There should be a proper Ministerial system in North Borneo

Point 14: Transitional period

This should be seven years and during such period legislative power must be left with the State of North Borneo by the Constitution and not be merely delegated to the State Government by the Federal Government

Point 15: Education

The existing educational system of North Borneo should be maintained and for this reason it should be under state control

Point 16: Constitutional safeguards

No amendment modification or withdrawal of any special safeguard granted to North Borneo should be made by the Central Government without the positive concurrence of the Government of the State of North Borneo

The power of amending the Constitution of the State of North Borneo should belong exclusively to the people in the state. (Note: The United Party, The Democratic Party and the Pasok Momogun Party considered that a three-fourth majority would be required in order to effect any amendment to the Federal and State Constitutions whereas the UNKO and USNO considered a two-thirds majority would be sufficient.)

Point 17: Representation in Federal Parliament

This should take account not only of the population of North Borneo but also of its size and potentialities and in any case should not be less than that of Singapore

Point 18: Name of Head of State

Yang di-Pertua Negara

Point 19: Name of State

Sarawak or Sabah

Point 20: Land, Forests, Local Government, etc.

The provisions in the Constitution of the Federation in respect of the powers of the National Land Council should not apply in North Borneo. Likewise, the National Council for Local Government should not apply in North Borneo

NOTE: For further information in regards to the related article, kindly refer to Wikipedia.


  1. Michael John berkata:

    The Government didn’t just altered this Agreement alone, even the Land Code got altered for the reason of profit to the leaders in our state.

  2. […] Penduduk Sarawak sudah bijak. Nampaknya banyak penduduk akan mengundi parti pembangkang kerana beberapa isu yang sukar diselesaikan oleh pihak parti kerajaan BN walaupun telah memerintah Sarawak lebih 47 tahun (INFO: DISINI). […]

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